Croatian lands under Ottoman rule


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Map of the Ottoman Empire 1481st to 1683rd

Croatian and Bosnian pashalik around the 1606thOttoman rule in the territory of today's Croatian Croatian means the period of history in which the components of today's Croatian territory was under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. Already in the 14th century were Croats faced with a huge danger and not knowing then that it would for them to have tragic consequences. The rapid spread of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkan Peninsula, not only threatens their survival, but also leads to the complete destruction or removal of Croats with ethnic and political map of Europe of that time. Under the heavy pressure and choppy Ottoman army, exhausted and impoverished by Croatia in the late 16th century reduced the residue remains (reliquiae reliquiarum). She has lost two thirds of its area and more than half of the population. Hunger and poverty are its a fact of life, and the war against the Ottoman Empire becomes the interest of the majority population.Contents [hide]1 Ottoman threat and aggression2 Hundred Years' Croatian-Turkish War3 Croatia on the bumper of Central Europe4 Ottoman conquest and defeat at the Battle of Mohacs (1526).5 Croats, the Habsburgs to elect their kings (1527).6 Position Croatian aggression between the Ottoman and Venetian occupation7 Continuation of the Hundred Years War - Battle SIGETSKA (1566).8 Genesis Croatian-Slavonian Military Frontier9 New Ottoman attacks and their collapse in Sisak in 1593.10 Execution Zrinski and Frankopan 1671.11 Croatia rediviva and Peace of Karlowitz 1699th12 The administrative division13 Social Relations14 Sources15 Related ArticlesOttoman threat and aggression [edit]
The 1433rd King Sigismund realized that there was great danger threatened his kingdoms and the Ottoman Turks and the Venetians. It is therefore formed three defense camp - area, the first in Central Europe. First, Croatian, who is supposed to defend Croatia and Dalmatia, second, Slavonia, according to Una and third, Usorko, defense and inner parts of northern Bosnia. It was the beginning of an organized defense of space, which will be developed in later centuries as the Military Border, Borders (Militärgrenze). From the 1458th far as 1490. Croatian and Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus governments who are parties to the Bosnian kings alliance against the Ottomans, and supported by the Holy See. However, in the summer 1463rd Sultan Mehmed II. penetrate into Bosnia, and that she could not Matijas then help, Bosnia in a whisper, that fell without resistance. Already in the fall of King Matthias penetrated to Jajce, freed several cities. Again renewed the defense system, called. Banate, along the river Vrbas Jajce and Srebrničku in eastern Bosnia. In the valley of Croatia defended the fort Počitelj. Since the Ottomans already 1393rd Bulgaria won, 1453rd occupied Constantinople, the 1459th Serbia, in turn, were then Herzegovina, Croatia and Hungary.Hundred Years' Croatian-Turkish War [edit]
More detailed article on the topic: The centenary of the Croatian-Turkish warIn the second half of the 15 century, continuing the steady attacks from the Ottomans occupied Bosnia to Croatia. They are, in fact, lead predominantly domestic, Islamized begs many of whom until recently were Catholics. It was a constant war on the border of mali who lead Turkey and Croatia. Already in the 1465th They won Blagaj on Sana, once a city of Croatian leaders and headquarters Babonićs Duke Hrvoje Vukčića Hrvatinića. The 1471st Počitelj take on the Neretva and the 1482nd fall and Herceg-Novi, last free part of Herzegovina. Nicholas of Ilok is vain, Croatian nobleman named king of Bosnia (1471)., And King Matthias Corvinus 1480th even penetrated into Bosnia to Sarajevo. In these difficult times, the Croatians managed 1491st Beat the Turkish army returning from raids in Kranjska. But all seemed lost when the Croatian nobility 1493rd heavily beaten in the battle of Krbava. However, the defeat of Croats in Kor was the announcement and the start of a century of defensive war in which the Croats bravely defended their country each rate. While the Ottomans from the 1453rd until 1482. captured Constantinople and destroyed the Byzantine Empire conquered many kingdoms, the Croatians in a hundred years, losing only fifty kilometers, deep space. Preserve a narrow strip of your state who called themselves the remains of remains of the once powerful Croatian kingdom (reliquiae reliquiarum olim inclyti regni Croatiae).Croatia on the bumper of Central Europe [edit]
Croatian Parliament, the 1494th met in the Croatian town of Bihac and asked the German-Roman Emperor Maximilian I and Pope Alexander VI. to aid in the defense, because it will be, otherwise have to move out or Croats make a deal with the Turks. Help that is coming in was not enough. But the war has continued, especially when it became the Croatian Ban Petar Berislavić. It is the 1513th with the pope's help defeated the Turkish army at Dubica and gave new hope. This was repeated and the 1518th when the Croatian army had reached Jajce and supplied ga victuals, and ammunition. He did the same again next year, and the 1519th Pope Leo X. gave Croatia an honorable name bulwark of Christianity (antemurale Christianitatis). However, next year's Berislavić, whom they called father and defender of the homeland, was killed in an ambush on a Turkish mountain devil (Plješivica).Ottoman conquest and defeat at the Battle of Mohacs (1526). [Edit]

Battle of Mohacs field, Turkish MiniaturesFrom the 1521st to the 1566th when it was ruled by Sultan Suleyman II. experienced both Croatia and Hungary worst defeat in its history and lost consecutive Many cities and provinces. First is the 1521st Belgrade fell, the Hungarian capital, called picturesque golden key and also the Hungarian and Croatian Slavonia. Ottomans occupied Sirmium, and their forces were advancing from Bosnia to Dalmatia and win Knin, Sinj Skradin.Vain in 1522. Duke Bernardin Frankopan Ozaljski in Nuremberg begged assistance from the German Parliament, it has not arrived. The 1525th His son Krsto Frankopan last Jajce saved from falling into the daring raid which admired Europe of that time. After the Croatian Red came monarchy. Sultan Suleyman II. he took the bulk of his army over Vukovar and Osijek north. They built the famous bridge over the Drava (Suleiman Bridge) and from there to focus their attacks towards the Hapsburg Vienna. King Ludwig II. Jagiello is poorly prepared for defense, received only support from Slavonia, and the Croatian army did not wait, but went into battle and suffered the 1526th terrible defeat at Mohács on the Danube. After the disaster, which has meant the collapse of Jagiellon and reorganization of the Croatian-Hungarian kingdom, the Ottomans had opened the way to Buda and Vienna. Both Croats and Hungarians were then turned separately to help Europe. The first in this direction was Habsburg Austria which stood behind the German Empire, also Charles V Habsburg.Croats, the Habsburgs to elect their kings (1527). [Edit]
Since he died at Mohács, and the last Louis II Jagiello. - King of Hungary and the Croatian and the Habsburgs already been promised to the crown, and that they are the only real power that is so-so could organize the defense, it was natural for them to choose the Croats for their rulers. In addition, the Habsburgs even before helping the Croatian defense because through it opened the way to winning the Austrian hereditary countries (Styria, Carniola, Carinthia).Because of all that the Croats Cetina Parliament 1527th free will and independent of Hungary elect for their king, Ferdinand I of Habsburg, but is provided to help defend the Croatian and respects all its ancient rights and freedom. In this way, confirming elements of their statehood and the status of a free kingdom. However, part of the Slavonian nobles elected as part of the Hungarian nobility as king sylvanian Duke Ivan Zapolja. Therefore, clearance by the civil war that would last until death Zapolja 1540th year. During this time the Ottomans from Bosnia are constantly attacked and captured the 1528th Jajce as a first line of defense Croatian and 1532nd the bulk of the army moving to Vienna. He stopped them at Kiseg in western Hungary Croat Nikola Jurisic. The 1536th Pozega fall - the main pillar of defense Slavonia, and next year, and Klis - previously impenetrable fortress in the defense of the southern Croatian - Dalmatia.Position Croatian aggression between the Ottoman and Venetian occupation [edit]
Croatians in the Habsburg Monarchy preserve their autonomy, ie Parliament as a representative of the state and legal individuality Croatian kingdom, Ban leads the government, but they are in constant wars, lost a large part of their historic, national territory, especially in eastern Slavonia and Danube, Southern Dalmatia character, Corbavia and its former capitals eg Knin. Venice was occupied cities of Split, Zadar, Sibenik, etc., so it was just a free Dubrovnik, but he is also the 1526th he recognized Ottoman suzerainty and to pay an annual tribute. Croatia at the time, together with Hungary, was the defender of Central Europe, and part of its territory on the border was exempt from the authority of the ban, and it maintained a defensive cordon toward the Israeli-occupied Bosnia, called the Military Border, Border or under direct military administration in Graz and Vienna . Hundreds of thousands of Croats took the Turks and sold as slaves in the East, also has a large number of Croats fled to the Austrian countries: Hungary, Italy, the Czech Republic, so I still live there their remains as Burgenland, Hungarian, Slovak, Moravian, Romanian and Italian (Molise) Croats. To their homes were first Ottomans, and the generals of the Military Frontier settled thousands of non-Slavic-Vlach shepherds and a small number of Serbs. Croatia has so lost and parts of the territory and more than half its a population. Former parts of Croatian territory belonged to the then three great powers of the era: Habsburg Austria, then part of the Ottoman Turks who occupied the islands and coastal areas on which are ruled by the Venetians. So Croatian state territory was under: Administration Constantinople, Venice and Vienna, which is administered through its General Military Border, but Croatia still recognized the status of kingdom.Continued Hundred Years' War - Battle SIGETSKA (1566.) [Edit]

Nikola Subic ZrinskiThe Habsburgs were gathered a large army and 1537. attempting to free the region of Slavonia, but their commander John Katzianer heavily beaten by Gorjana. The Ottomans continued to sell and 1552nd Moslavina win, Virovitica, Čazma and come to the westernmost point, to the river drinking fountains. There are limits stabilized. Croats are erected for the defense of the fortress of Sisak, and at sea in the Senju uskoci determine who left Klis.The 1556th Turks-Ottomans occupied Kostajnica - called Croatian goal. Croatia in the next two decades, losing the provinces and instead Une last line of defense moves to Cup dominated fortress of Sisak. In these wars, all the anti-gravity fight wore Croatian nobles and princes, especially Zrinski Frankopan, Erdodyji and others. They are his persistence and courage are often surprised and Turkish and Austrian side and scored notable victories that gave new strength to fight. However, the heroic resistance of Nikola Subic Zrinski in the Battle of Sige (in Hungary) where the 1566th retained and drained a huge Ottoman force and saved Vienna, impressed the then Europe. Hence got the flattering name of Croatian Leonidas, now ga Croats and Hungarians consider their national hero.The origin of the Croatian-Slavonian Military Frontier [edit]
More detailed article: Military BorderFor the Croatian defense and Slavonia from the constant intrusion of the Ottoman authorities were established in Senj, Ogulin, Bihac, Hrastovica, Žumberku, Ivanic Križevci and Koprivnica and so the covered area of ​​the sea to the river Drava. While the Croats for defense found Sisak, the Habsburgs were built for these purposes Sheffield (1579).. All authorities in Croatia were soon arranged as Karlovac or Croatian Krajina, Slavonia and a Slavonian Military Frontier or Varaždin military. Their management and financing downloaded directly Habsburgs and their generals are piloting them from Graz, and later in Vienna. It was a series, the first system of military fortifications, watchtowers (balcony) which had a defensive, and reporting service. The same is arranged in southern Hungary and Transylvania, and they had something similar with its famous Chinese wall Bizantici with themed décor and Russians Cossack settlements. Between the Croatian and Slavonian Krajina, in Pokuplje, left the band fort under the direct rule of the Croatian Ban, and therefore called Viceroyalty Border or today Subdivisions. Later, there existed regiment or regiments Clay and Petrinja. The basic problem of the Military Frontier was funding, arming, and colonization of deserted areas. Since the military and the administration Krajina area exempted, namely snatched from the power of the Croatian Parliament and the ban, it is from the late 16th during the 17th century Vlachs who settled here had to give some privileges, such as the 1630th so. Vlach Statute (Statute Valachorum) for Varaždin Border. Vlachs, who were nomads, Orthodox, have often complained, and the Austrian authorities were used and the pressure on the Croats who sought to preserve their caste rights. Since attempts to crossing the Greek Catholic faith Blaise failed (union), and they did not fit into the Croatian society, others, foreign body in the Croatian state.New Ottoman attacks and their collapse in Sisak in 1593. [Edit]

Battle of SisakBosnian Sanjak-bey Ferhat Pasha began with winning over between Una and Kupa River basin in clay. He won the Budačkog 1575th and 1577th occupied Croatian towns - fortresses: Kladuša, Ostrožac and Zrin, and right then and Gvozdansko. This is the one area that most carved in central Croatia Karlovac in direction that is immediately followed by the defense raised. The Croatian hands remained in the background still only Bihac and its environs. However, from the 1584th the Croatian army won many battles and announced the end of the Ottoman conquest tide. When in 1580. Bosnia became pashalik Ottomans are seeking to expand and continue on Croatian soil. It tried to Islamized Hasan Predojević dogs who decided to take Sisak - then key Croatian. First he won the Bihac, and then raised to Buy Petrinja new fort that would bypass the Refinery. However, he failed to take any Sisak 1592nd or the 1593rd, but, on the contrary, he suffered with his large army disastrous defeat at the confluence of the Kupa and Sava rivers, in the Sisak island. It was formerly the biggest victory of the Christian armies and the fall of year for the Turks - Turks, especially Bosniaks, and the biggest success of the Croatian Ban Toma Erdödy who celebrated the entire Catholic Europe. Neb was then (in 1991.), Saved in central Croatia, especially Zagreb and winning the intersection of its territory.Execution Zrinski and Frankopan 1671. [Edit]

Beheading Zrinskis Peter and Fran Krsto Frankopan in Wiener NeustadtAfter the Turkish defeat at Sisak continued long war between the Habsburgs and the Ottomans who are actively engaged and Croats under their bans. The first time the Christian forces and maintain their balance, have won several victories and peace of the 1606th Croatia have returned Čazma, Petrinja Rudes. It began withdrawing Bosniaks and regression Ottoman attacks. It was, also, a sign of the Vlachs, who had previously attended mass in their campaigns, to leave the side that has started to lose mass and begin to migrate to the Christian, the Habsburg side, the Croatian historical territory. Slack on the eastern border of the Habsburgs used for the wars in Europe, where they had to participate Croatian noblemen, soldiers and frontiersmen, such as the Thirty Years' War of the 1618th and 1648. year. There have distinguished themselves particularly Zrinski brothers, then the most powerful Croatian Croatian nobles and governors. They are, like the rest of Croatia, demanded an offensive in the east and restore still occupied Croatian areas, such as Bosnia, particularly after the defeat of the Turks at St. Gothard 1664th Then the Habsburgs, as winners, made an unfavorable peace with the Ottoman Empire. Since Vašvarski peace was signed without the knowledge and participation of the time was that was the reason the brothers Zrinskis to connect with the Hungarian nobles and resist unlawful practices and centralist Habsburgs. Therefore, they requested assistance from the French, Polish, Venice, Turkey, but they were let down, and soon declared conspirators and 1671st the governor Peter Zrinski and Fran Krsto Frankopan, who are on the ruler's words came to Vienna, executed in Wiener Neustadt as veleizdajnici, and their vast estates were plundered and confiscated. It was the collapse of the famous Croatian magnates, also the end of their race.Croatia rediviva and Peace of Karlowitz 1699th [Edit]

Map širanje areas of the Habsburg MonarchyThe Ottomans were last again in 1683. gathered a vast army and besieged Vienna, but this time it saved Poles. Turkish army retreating in disarray, and it occurred Austrians, Hungarians, Croats and others. He started a war of liberation in which the entire Croatian people, so in the next 15 years are exempt from the whole of Slavonia, Banovina, Lika, Gacko and Krbava. Some generals have performed penetration to Sarajevo in Bosnia, and even to Skopje, but had to withdraw due to an attack on the French Hapsburg possessions in Germany. Inside the former Ottoman possessions struck by uprisings of the conquered peoples, many bandits Fellowship, and has progressed from outside Croatia and the imperial army. In these battles are highlighted in Slavonia Franciscan Luke Ibrisimovic in Lika priest Marko Mesic. They have not only led the uprising, but rallied and settled people in the liberated areas. According to the first affordable, actually winning, the Peace 1699th liberated the whole of Hungary. Croatian army returned occupied parts of Slavonia and Syrmia, as before-mentioned banovina Lika area. Croatia, which the Ottoman conquests temporarily lost four fifths of their historic territory then increased to more than double, and had about 40,000 km2. At the same time many Muslims and Catholics Islamized and Orthodox Vlachs opted to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and hence the tens of thousands of Catholic Croats, called. Genesis crossed the Sava River and settled in Slavonia and Danube. And despite the fact that Venice is a participant in the war managed to expand their holdings at the expense of Croatian historical and ethnic territories in Dalmatia, however, we can take the opinion of the Croatian scientists and participants in these events Paul Ritter Vitezovića that this was Croatia rediviva (ie revived Croatia).Administrative divisions [edit]
More detailed article on the topic: The administrative division of the Ottoman EmpireMore detailed articles on the following topics: Požeški Sanjak Sanjak honorary, Klis, Lika Sanjak

Map of the Bosnian pashalik early 17th century in which the visible sandžakbegs along the CroatianExpansion of the Ottoman Empire in 15th and 16 century, the newly formed sandžakbegs in Serbia, Greece, Albania, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Montenegro and Croatian parts, were annexed Rumeliya ayalet. Establishment Budim one (pashaluk) 1541st years, were involved Zvornik, Srem and Požeški sanjak of Rumelia and Buda merged pashaluk.The western part of Slavonia until Čazma conquered between the 1542nd and 1552nd was connected Bosnian Sandžak. When the 1557th Čazma established Sanjak is not affiliated Buda than Rumeliya beglerbekluks. By implementing a new administrative division of the 1580th establishment of a separate Bosnian pashalik are Čazma, already Pakrački, Pozeski and Zvornik sanjak of Rumelia and Buda and annexed Bosnian pashaluk.After taking Kaniza (Nagykanizsa) in the southwestern part of Hungary 1600th and establishing Kaniškog ayalet, made the last administrative change, so Požeški excluded from the Bosnian Sanjak and annexed KANIŠKA ayalet while Pakrački or Cernica Sanjak kept their place in the Bosnian pashaluk, whose composition they will remain until the end of Ottoman rule.After taking Klis 12th ožujka 1537th established Klis. Establishment Klis sanjak was reduced Bosnian Sandzak region, because in his band came all Ottoman possessions northwest of Solin, in the southwestern part of Bosnia, Kor and Lika. His official seat was in Klis, although mostly Klis sandžakbeys seat in Livno. Krcko-licki Sanjak is derived from the Klis sanjak (about 1579th) Headquarters Krcko Lika-Sanjak was in Knin or occasionally in Udbina.There is also sandžakbegs who briefly existed or did not exist, and yet it is mentioned in various sources. Sandzak Osijek is certainly there, but it is difficult to determine when it was established (probably behind. 1540), and when discontinued. Referred to as sandžakbegs Orahovica and Valpovo, but probably did not exist.Social relations [edit]
The conquered territory Croatian government established the Ottoman Timar-bond system as a special form of feudal social relations. Under this system, all the earth, and all income from the land, regardless of their source, were the sultan or the public good (erazimiri) won by the sword (Kilifi) in victorious and holy war (gaza) Ottoman army. Social and political basis of the system based on Islamic institutions and subsistence economy. Given the feudal character of the bond-timarskog system, the entire society was divided into two main layers: the ruling military-feudal and subject to paradise.